RPyC is oriented around the notion of services. Services are classes that
rpyc.core.service.Service and define “exposed methods” – normally, methods
whose name explicitly begins with
exposed_. Services also have a name, or a list of aliases.
Normally, the name of the service is the name of its class (excluding a possible
suffix), but you can override this behavior by specifying the
ALIASES attribute in the class.
Let’s have a look at a rather basic service – a calculator (see Custom RPyC Servers for more info)
import rpyc class CalculatorService(rpyc.Service): def exposed_add(self, a, b): return a + b def exposed_sub(self, a, b): return a - b def exposed_mul(self, a, b): return a * b def exposed_div(self, a, b): return a / b def foo(self): print("foo")
When a client connects, it can access any of the exposed members of the service
import rpyc conn = rpyc.connect("hostname", 12345) x = conn.root.add(4,7) assert x == 11 try: conn.root.div(4,0) except ZeroDivisionError: pass
As you can see, the
root attribute of the connection gives you access to the service
that’s exposed by the other party. For security concerns, access is only granted to
exposed_ members. For instance, the
foo method above is inaccessible (attempting to
call it will result in an
Rather than having each method name start with
exposed_, you may prefer to use a
decorator. Let’s revisit the calculator service, but this time we’ll use decorators.
import rpyc @rpyc.service class CalculatorService(rpyc.Service): @rpyc.exposed def add(self, a, b): return a + b @rpyc.exposed def sub(self, a, b): return a - b @rpyc.exposed def mul(self, a, b): return a * b @rpyc.exposed def div(self, a, b): return a / b def foo(self): print "foo"
When implementing services,
@rpyc.exposed can replace the
As previously explained, all
exposed_ members of your service class will be available to
the other party. This applies to methods, but in fact, it applies to any attribute. For instance,
you may expose a class:
class MyService(rpyc.Service): class exposed_MyClass(object): def __init__(self, a, b): self.a = a self.b = b def exposed_foo(self): return self.a + self.b
If you wish to change the name of your service, or specify a list of aliases, set the
(class-level) attribute to a list of names. For instance:
class MyService(rpyc.Service): ALIASES = ["foo", "bar", "spam"]
The first name in this list is considered the “proper name” of the service, while the rest are considered aliases. This distinction is meaningless to the protocol and the registry server.
Your service class may also define two special methods:
on_connect(self, conn) and
on_disconnect(self, conn). The
on_connect method is invoked when a connection has been established.
From the client-side perspective,
on_connect is invoked each time a client successfully invokes
rpyc.connect or any other function provided by the connection factory module:
rpyc.utils.factory. After the connection is dead,
on_disconnect is invoked (you will not be able to access remote objects inside of
Try to avoid overriding the
__init__ method of the service. Place all initialization-related
RPyC comes bundled with two built-in services:
RPyC is a symmetric protocol, which means both ends of the connection can act as clients
or servers – in other words – both ends may expose (possibly different) services. Normally,
only the server exposes a service, while the client exposes the
VoidService, but this is
not constrained in any way. For instance, in the classic mode, both ends expose the
SlaveService; this allows each party to execute arbitrary code on its peer. Although
it’s not the most common use case, two-sides services are quite useful. Consider this client:
class ClientService(rpyc.Service): def exposed_foo(self): return "foo" conn = rpyc.connect("hostname", 12345, service = ClientService)
And this server:
class ServerService(rpyc.Service): def on_connect(self, conn): self._conn = conn def exposed_bar(self): return self._conn.root.foo() + "bar"
The client can invoke
conn.root.bar() on the server, which will, in turn, invoke
on the client. The final result would be
Another approach is to pass callback functions. Consider this server:
class ServerService(rpyc.Service): def exposed_bar(self, func): return func() + "bar"
And this client:
def foofunc(): return "foo" conn = rpyc.connect("hostname", 12345) conn.root.bar(foofunc)
See also Configuration Parameters